by Martin E. Meserve
VHF/UHF Yagi Antenna Design
the design of an antenna in the VHF, UHF, and Microwave frequency range with High Gain (11.8 to 21.6 dBd)
and Long Boom Lengths (2.2 to 39 Wavelengths). Lower frequency antennas that have these attributes tend
to be physically impractical. This page is adapted from BASIC program original written by Jerry Haigwood,
KY4Z, and Bob Stein, W6NBI. This program is maintained by Ian White, G3SEK, and the master
is now on his VHF/UHF Long Yagi Workshop page at
For those that have already been through this page a time or two, and would rather not deal with the rhetoric,
you might want to try my Yagi Quick Design page. One screen has it all.
Page Layout - There are 4 major sections, three for defining your design and one for viewing your design
results. Navigation can be done by simply scrolling up and down the page, or you can use the menu that
appears at the top of each major section.
Help Function - Once you get use to the sections, defining your design and inputting it into the data
areas will be very straight foward and you won't need further explanations however, when you do, there is a
Help page available that discusses each section in greater detail
accessable through the section navigation menu. If you are not sure what the program is asking for, this should help.
Dimensions - You can choose to enter all you data in US/Imperial dimensions or Metric dimensions.
You can also mix dimensions. For example, if you wish to specify Boom Diameter in Inches but want to use Millimeters
to specify the element diameters, it's OK. The program takes care of the necessary conversion.
Error Notification - The text boxes, usually located under a set of select areas, contain information to
aid in your data entry. Data inconsistant with this information is not brought to your attention until you display
the antenna design in the Design View section. The antenna will still be designed, however, you will be
notified of the inconsistancy and should realize that this data could cause eroneous calculations.
On the right, define the Design Frequency for your antenna design. Then define either the Foward Gain
or the Boom Length.
Gain should be between to 11.8 dBd and 21.6 dBd. Boom Length should be between 2.2 and 39 Wavelengths.
DL6WU used a 0.2 wavelength Reflector Spacing in his designs and the ARRL uses 0.15 wavelength Reflector Spacing in
their designs. The spacing can be anything between these limits. The equations used for the Director Element Spacing
is also slightly different between the DL6WU and ARRL designs. Select the spacing(s) of your choice but note that,
it may affect the feed impedance.
Select the type of Boom, metalic or non-metalic, and the method of mounting the elements. Then
enter the Boom Diameter. The text area below will advise you of the limits that you should observe.
A x boom with x
elements is currently specified with a diameter of x, which
is x. A default Boom Correction of
x has been calculated.
To accept the calculated Boom Correction, do nothing. However, youcan choose a different Boom Correction. Use the
Init BC Button to reset the Boom Correction to it's default, calculated, value.
It is recommended that the element diameters be limited to between 0.001 and 0.02 wavelengths. At
the current Design Frequency, x, this is x to
x, or x to
x. The idea here is to keep the diameter small
in relation to the element length. Thus, as frequency increases, the useful element diameter decreases.
The current design is an antenna for x. It has
x Reflector, x
Driven, and x Director Elements. Estimated Gain is
For further viewing, below are several antenna designs from The ARRL Antenna Book, 18th Edition.
They were designed using a method similar to the one in this web page, however, the element spacing
and length curves are slightly different. That being said, don't expect to design an antenna with this
program that exactly matches the ARRL designs. When you first click on one of the buttons a separate
window will pop up. Clicking on the other buttons will then replace the contents of that popup window.
Antenna design for 144 MHz. It has 1 Reflector, 1 Driven, and 10 Director Elements. Estimated Gain is 12.5 dBd.
G8WRB Data File
Antenna design for 222 MHz. It has 1 Reflector, 1 Driven, and 14 Director Elements. Estimated Gain is 14 dBd.
G8WRB Data File
Antenna design for 432 MHz. 1 Reflector, 1 Driven, and 20 Director Elements. Estimated Gain is 17.9 dBd.
G8WRB Data File
Antenna design for 432 MHz. 1 Reflector, 1 Driven, and 31 Director Elements. Estimated Gain is 19.9 dBd.
G8WRB Data File
Antenna boom design example, by the ARRL, for obtaining extended boom lengths.