Contrary to what your address bar may indicate, this site is NOT INSECURE.

My web site is hosted on one of the top rated web host, GoDaddy. Is GoDaddy providing insecure web hosting?

I would hope not, but they aren't beyond trying to scam you out of money. The last time GoDaddy called to me, they offered to get rid of that notice for a mere $250! That's twice what I already pay for hosting. And way beyond my budget. Since my site does not ask for any personal user information, there is nothing to secure. However, rather than offer me their low cost solution, they only offer their highest price solution. I guess that's just one of the reasons that GoDaddy isn't number one.

So, there may be an interruption in access to my web site, as I switch to web host that offers a SSL Certificate as part of the hosting. And, the overall cost will be much less than what GoDaddy charges.


The main focus of this site is what I call my JavaScript® Electronic Notebook, accessable from the menu on the left. It consists of a group of JavaScript® driven web pages that are intended for use as a quick reference for Amateur Radio operators or just anyone interested in electronics. Use the popup menu bar on the left, to access any one of my pages.

This web site does not use Java, Flash, or any Active-X controls. However, it does make extensive use of Javascript®. If you get a warning about restricting this web page from runing script, you will need to click on "Allow blocked content". Or, in the "Options" menu, you will need to allow JavaScript®. If you don't, nothing on my web site will operate, including the menu. Javascript® is used for operating calculators and rendering drawings. There is nothing in the Javascript® that would cause any problems.

Except for that small icon that alternates between "Best Sites" and "AFS Analytics", there is no advertising on my web site. That small icon is just a way for me to collect statistics on my web pages. Beyond that, there shouldn't be any annoyances. I fund this web site completely on my own.

It is now the year . I started my web site on June 5, 2004 and has it evolved as time moved on. What you see now is a rewrite. I rewrote the entire web site for many reasons. My original web site seemed to work well, but it was a little problematic for maintainance and adding pages. So a much simpler format has been adopted.

Note: Even though this rewrite is not complete, I am publishing it anyway. It has be come too big and too clumsy to keep in a test mode. So you may find some pages incomplete and other still in the old format. I am still working on the site but I don't have any real finish date. Part of that is because I get an idea for a new page, and get distracted. My original web site will be available for a while, but as new pages are completed, redirect pages will take their place.

Conventions Used: To keep consistancy between pages, there are certain conventions that I have adopted.

  • Calculate Buttons: While all of my pages perform some kind of calculations, there are no buttons that say "Calculate" on any of my pages. Each time you change a input, and then click any where else on the page, the entire page is recalculated. This may seem like a lot of calculating, but even the most complicated of my pages recalculates in a fraction of a second and is not noticable.
  • Input Data: Input data is prompted for using HTML <input> tags. Often there are cases when some <input> data is not required, fixed, or simply not wanted. In those cases the <input> will be "grayed" out. User input will be disabled.
  • Output Data:
  • Data Dimensions:

Browser Compatability: When I write my web pages, I use Google Chrome as I am developing. Then, from time to time, I go back and check the operation of my pages with Internet Explorer 11, Firefox and Edge. All of which are usually the latest versions. Beyond that, I don't do any other testing. During development, the most problematic browser has been Internet Explorer 11, but I think I have figured out most of my issues. I have found that Internet Explorer 11 errors out on some relatively simple Javascript constructs. However, Since Microsoft is trying to replace IE with Edge, all of my compatability efforts might be in vein.

  • Resistors
    • Basic Resistors
      • How to decode a resistor's value from the color code printed on the body.
    • Resistors Series/Parallel
      • Calculator for resistors in series and parallel.
    • Precision/Custom Resistors
      • Calculator for precision/custom resistors using parallel resistor combinations.
    • Ohm's Law - DC
      • An introduction to Ohm's Law and the relationship between resistance, voltage, current, and power.
    • Kirchhoff's Law
      • Describes Kirchoff's first and second law, on current and voltage in a circuit.
    • PI-, T-, H-Attenuator
      • Calculator for design resistor based PI-, T-, and H-Attenuators.
  • Capacitors
    • Basic Capacitors
      • Calculators for capacitors in series and parallel.
    • Plate Capacitors
      • Calculators for determining the capacitance of 2 or more metal plates separated by an insulating material.
    • Cylindrical/Coaxial Capacitors
      • Calculator for creating cylindrical capacitors and. information on the capacitance of coaxial cable.
    • Reactance, L/C
      • An introduction to Inductive/Capacitive Reactance. Contains a L/C/X Slide calculator and L/C/X Chart.
  • Inductors
    • Air-Core Inductor Design
      • Automates the design of a Layer, Air-Core, Inductor. You define the required inductance, wire type/size, etc., and the program performs the necessary calculations. Includes optomizing the design for form diameter and turns count.
    • Air-Core Inductor Calculator
      • Two calculators for estimating the inductance of a existing Single-Layer Air-Core Inductor by supplying some basic physical dimensions.
    • Multi-Layer Inductor Calculator
    • Toroidal Inductors
    • Toroidal Cores
    • Inductance Straight Wires/Flat Strip
      • Calculate the inductance of a straight, round, nonmagnetic wire in Free Space.
  • Power Supplies
    • Unregulate Power Supply
      • A transformer, some diodes and a couple of capacitors are all you need to make a simple Un-Regulated power supply. This supply can then be filtered using the LM317 Voltage Regulator.
    • Zener Regulation
    • LM317 Voltage Regulator
      • This regulator is intended to follow the Un-Regulated power supply. This regulator provides the necessary ripple and load regulation required by more sensitive transistor circuits.
    • LM317 Voltage Regulator
  • Filters
    • LC Low/High Pass Filters
    • 2/3-Way Speaker Cross-Over
    • 2nd Order Active Filters Low/High-Pass
    • 2nd Order Active Filters Band-Pass
    • 2nd Order Active Filters Band-Reject
    • 3rd Order Active Filter LP
  • Antennas - HF
    • Antenna Element Lengths
      • Contains a calculator as an aid for determining antenna element lengths, based on Frequency, Type (Wire or Tubing), and Diameter (AWG#, inches, mm) of the element. Also contains a "Table of Horizontal Antenna Lengths from 1 to 7 Half-Wavelengths", a "Table of Vertical Antenna Lengths from 1 to 7 Quarter-Wavelengths", and "Calculation of K, the Antenna Shortening Factor". All of which is based on a user's frequency input.
    • Antenna Freq./Dia./Length Scaling
      • Contains a calculator for scaling an existing antenna design for another band/frequency. Plus a calculator for adjusting a existing antenna element that is cut for one frequency to another frequency, in diameter as well as length.
    • End Fed Antenna
    • Half Wave Dipole
    • ES2B Dipole
      • Presents a method that can be used to expand your single band dipole to another lower frequency band, and still fit the antenna in available space.
    • Fat (Broadbanded) Dipole
    • Short Dipole
    • Short Multi-Band Dipole
    • Shorty 40
    • Coax Trap Antenna
    • Folded Dipole
    • Inverted-V
    • Yagi Antenna (2-6 Element)
    • 2-Element HF Yagi Design
    • 3-Element HF Yagi Design
    • 2 & 3-Element HF Yagi Matching
  • Antennas - VHF
    • Aircraft Band Antenna
    • J-Pole (144 MHz, 220 MHz, 440 MHz, ...)
    • VHF/UHF Antennas (Basic)
    • VHF/UHF Yagi Antenna (2-6 El.)
    • VHF/UHF Yagi (11.8 to 21.6 dBd)
    • VHF/UHF Yagi (Quick)
    • VHF/UHF Yagi Feed
    • VHF/UHF Yagi Help
  • General Information
    • US Amateur Radio Privilages
    • US Amateur Radio Privilages (Tech)
    • Ham Q-Signals
    • Frequency and Wavelength
    • Wire Size Information
    • Wire Diameter/Area
    • Metric to/from Feet/Inch
    • Fraction/Decimal Conversion Tables
    • System Voltage Drop
  • Miscellaneous
    • Morse Code
    • Site Rebuild
    • Documentation of lib_s.js
    • Documentation of lib_fc.js
    • TTL List
    • Transmitter Building Blocks
    • RMS/Peak/P-P Table
    • AZ 2M Repeater Locations
  • Projects
    • L-PI-T Multi Tuner
    • Power/SWR Bridge
    • Inductance Meter
    • Digital Mode Interfacing